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Low-Latitude Ionospheric Responses and Coupling to the February 2014 Multiphase Geomagnetic Storm from GNSS, Magnetometers, and Space Weather Data

Abstract : The ionospheric response and the associated mechanisms to geomagnetic storms are very complex, particularly during the February 2014 multiphase geomagnetic storm. In this paper, the low-latitude ionosphere responses and their coupling mechanisms, during the February 2014 multiphase geomagnetic storm, are investigated from ground-based magnetometers and global navigation satellite system (GNSS), and space weather data. The residual disturbances between the total electron content (TEC) of the International GNSS Service (IGS) global ionospheric maps (GIMs) and empirical models are used to investigate the storm-time ionospheric responses. Three clear sudden storm commencements (SSCs) on 15, 20, and 23 February are detected, and one high speed solar wind (HSSW) event on 19 February is found with the absence of classical SSC features due to a prevalent magnetospheric convection. The IRI-2012 shows insufficient performance, with no distinction between the events and overestimating approximately 20 TEC units (TECU) with respect to the actual quiet-time TEC. Furthermore, the median average of the IGS GIMs TEC during February 2014 shows enhanced values in the southern hemisphere, whereas the IRI-2012 lacks this asymmetry. Three low-latitude profiles extracted from the IGS GIM data revealed up to 20 TECU enhancements in the differential TEC. From these profiles, longer-lasting TEC enhancements are observed at the dip equator profiles than in the profiles of the equatorial ionospheric anomaly (EIA) crests. Moreover, a gradual increase in the global electron content (GEC) shows approximately 1 GEC unit of differential intensification starting from the HSSW event, while the IGS GIM profiles lack this increasing gradient, probably located at higher latitudes. The prompt penetration electric field (PPEF) and equatorial electrojet (EEJ) indices estimated from magnetometer data show strong variability after all four events, except the EEJ’s Asian sector. The low-latitude ionosphere coupling is mainly driven by the variable PPEF, DDEF (disturbance dynamo electric fields), and Joule heating. The auroral electrojet causing eastward PPEF may control the EIA expansion in the Asian sector through the dynamo mechanism, which is also reflected in the solar-quiet current intensity variability.
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https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-03675382
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Submitted on : Monday, May 23, 2022 - 10:12:15 AM
Last modification on : Thursday, September 29, 2022 - 10:24:24 AM

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Andres Calabia, Chukwuma Anoruo, Munawar Shah, Christine Amory-Mazaudier, Yury Yasyukevich, et al.. Low-Latitude Ionospheric Responses and Coupling to the February 2014 Multiphase Geomagnetic Storm from GNSS, Magnetometers, and Space Weather Data. Atmosphere, MDPI 2022, 13 (4), pp.518. ⟨10.3390/atmos13040518⟩. ⟨hal-03675382⟩

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